Ongoing research is being conducted on the world-wide health and economic impact of aflatoxin, a toxic byproduct of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus molds. Aflatoxin is found in crops, including pistachios, almonds, corn, peanuts, and as new research reveals, sunflowers. Contamination also includes the byproducts of each of these crops. The aflatoxin contamination to these crops is a toxic liver carcinogen. Chronic exposure causes an estimated 25,000-155,000 deaths annually from corn and peanuts alone. Studies have determined that aflatoxin is the greatest global disease burden. Continuing efforts and research are necessary to determine methods for prevention of aflatoxin contamination from these vital third-world crops.